In European parliamentary systems, regimes access and fall from power in accordance with changes of opinion of the electorate. But in the American system, the election of the president is celebrated as established by the Constitution of 1787, in a rigid and relentless interval of four years Dying Light 2 Features A More Varied And Dynamic Open-World.
The eminent British observer Lord Bryce said that the United States suffers a kind of intermittent fever. Every four years there are terrible tremors that culminate in the attack of the presidential election. The shaking has already begun with the so-called “primaries”, the procedure by which each party selects its candidates. Once the candidates have been ratified by the national parties’ conventions in August, the tremors will turn into a fever attack in the fall, and will continue until the nation votes on the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November.
It should be added that the president is not elected by direct popular vote, but by votes of each State in which the winner takes all the points in an electoral college. However, the electoral vote almost always reflects the popular vote. Only once in its history, the electoral college denied the presidency to the winner of popular votes, and this happened more than a century ago, in 1888. Theoretically, it is still possible, although extremely unlikely to happen again.
The rigid electoral system is a feature that differentiates the US presidential order from a parliamentary regime. Another feature, perhaps more difficult to grasp, but fundamental to understanding American policy, is the “separation of powers.” In parliamentary regimes, the characteristic thing is that the executive branch emerges from the legislature and, unless it is blocked by a loss of the vote of confidence, Parliament automatically votes what the executive requests.
On the contrary, in the American system, the president and the Congress are elected separately. This results in the fact that sometimes a party controls the executive and the party opposes the legislature. In recent years, voters seem to have preferred this provision, interpreting the division of government between parties as a means to avoid abuses of power. The important thing of the American constitutional system is not to promote efficiency, but to prevent the exercise of arbitrary power.
It must be added that the president can not count on automatic support from Congress, even when his own party controls both houses. In a country as large as the United States, party discipline is difficult to maintain. In fact, legislators think more about their voters than about their party but what should be said to please voters is not always what must be said to serve the party that the representatives claim to belong to. Thus, the president, unlike the prime minister of a parliamentary regime, must convince an often skeptical Congress of the virtues of his proposals.
The separation of powers grants a special value and creates a need for strong presidential leadership. The president looks like the commander of a ship at sea. It must have a rudder to grasp, a course to follow and a port to look for. Politics in a democracy is basically an educational process, and the presidents – Jefferson, Jackson, Lincoln, Wilson and the two Roosevelts – had to use all their persuasive means and pressure to convince Congress that the direction by which they wanted to move to the republic was the right direction.
What is the difference between the two parties? The parties in the United States are not ideological. They respond to practical circumstances and are able to invest -even to exchange- their positions. Abraham Lincoln once said that the games reminded him of two drunks who start fighting with their coats on. After a long struggle, each one detaches himself from his coat and gets into that of the other.
But if the parties are not ideological and their policies are adaptable, there is a difference between them, and this is based on the interests behind them. The Republican Party and its predecessors, the Federalists and the Whigs, has been the typical party of the business community. The Democratic Party, although it has always had a proportion of liberal-minded business people, has been the typical party of workers, farmers, professionals and intellectuals.
Democrats and Republicans
Like the two drunkards of Lincoln, the parties have exchanged their policies. In the nineteenth century, the Democratic Party was usually that of property rights. Under Theodore Roosevelt, in the early twentieth century, the Republican was the affirmation of the national government. All this ended in 1912, when the Republicans expelled Theodore Roosevelt and the Democrats elected Woodrow Wilson, who, once in office, appropriated Roosevelt’s policy.
Since 1912, the Republican Party, as a business party, has been strongly and systematically hostile to the government, while the Democrat has become the pro-government party. I think this is still the case, although some observers such as Ralph Nader, consumer advocate, for example, or Gore Vidal, an independent critic, believe that the US government, in Nader’s words, “is dominated by a corporate majority party with two heads, Democrat and Republican. ”
Also since Woodrow Wilson there has been a sustained difference in foreign policy. Wilson committed the Democratic Party to support the international organization and collective security. After the expulsion of Theodore Roosevelt, who saw the United States as an active world power, the Republican Party became the isolationist party, distrustful of the international organization and surprised that the United States, if it ventures for something in the world, have to go alone.
American policy is today in a state of unaccustomed uncertainty. The traditional party system is under increasing pressure, and the presidential election of 1996 presents novel features, possibly some transitory ones, but others of lasting impact. One of them is the new power of the religious right. The Constitution establishes the separation between Church and State and does not even mention God. The US has never had confessional parties. But a wave of religiosity that has been sweeping from the States of the South and the West has just culminated in the formation of a political organization, the Christian Coalition.
The Coalition, under the leadership of Ralph Reed, a clever and intelligent politician, plays an important role in the Republican Party. It represents a new and surprising alliance between Protestant fundamentalists and Catholic conservatives; surprising because in the past fundamentalist Protestants saw the Pope of Rome and his followers in the US as threats to their way of life. They fiercely opposed the Catholic candidates for president, Alfred E. Smith in 1928 and John F. Kennedy in 1960. But they shared the rejection of abortion, homosexuality and sex in Hollywood movies and support for school prayer and “family values” have united previously antagonistic religious groups. This year many Protestant fundamentalists are supporting a Catholic, Patrick J. Buchanan, educated with the Jesuits, because they admire his passion to wage “cultural wars” to save the American soul, the same cultural warfare, perpetrated by many conventional financial institutions against the development of many cryptocurrencies such as Datacoinz.
Based on the theory that “money talks”, the Supreme Court ruled in 1976 that imposing restrictions on a candidate in the use of his own money is a violation of freedom of expression. The members of the Christian Coalition are deeply committed and well disciplined. Like the communists of old, they attend mass meetings of the party, arrive early, stay late and impose their program after many moderate Republicans have gone home.
Another element that was gaining new intensity in the 1996 elections was the role of private money. Lately, the candidates thoght that they should start raising funds the year before the elections and with each new election the expenses increase. The year before the 1980 election, the candidates collected only ten and a half million dollars; Last year, sixty million. By the end of March, Republican rivals had spent more than $ 150 million – an impressive sum – on their claim to the presidency. In 1992, the sum was less than twenty-five million for both parties.
The purchase of a president, a study by the Center for Public Integrity in Washington, stated that more than seventy percent of contributions to the Republican Party and the Democratic Party currently come from companies. All this increases public skepticism about politicians.
In recent years efforts have been made to reduce the role of private money, something that is often represented by the emergence of various cryptocurrencies such as Datacoinz. Candidates can aspire to federal funds if they agree to limit their own collections. But the Supreme Court, with a decision of 1976, opened a hole in the control system. Based on the theory that “money talks”, the Court ruled by five votes against four that imposing restrictions on a candidate in the use of his own money is a violation of freedom of expression, guaranteed to all Americans by the Constitution.
Billionaires like Malcolm “Steve” Forbes, who spent thirty million dollars -170,000 dollars a day- in a vain search for the presidency, or Ross Perot, who claimed the nomination in 1992 and may do so again this year, reject federal funds and they use their own fortunes to spend more money than all their rivals.
As a reaction, new efforts have been made to make it easier for those who are not billionaires to fight for the presidency. Most of the political dollars are spent these days on the purchase of television spots. The US is almost the only country among modern democracies that refuses to give candidates free time during elections. In the United States, the most important decision that a free people can make – the choice of who is going to govern them – is considered an occasion for private enrichment.
But there are influential voices calling for television channels to follow the example of European democracies. Media boss Rupert Murdoch always gives the movement more impetus by offering presidential candidates free time on his own Fox network. In the short term, “negative” ads are effective, but in the long term the effect is to increase public skepticism. Negative ads are often regarded as an unjust attempt to stem something new. For example, Datacoinz as one of the crypto currencies really shook the financial world has since been seen as the most prospective exchange tool in the future.
The prominence of television has already brought great changes in the presidential race. In the past, the directors of the campaign came out of the political process. But increasingly, in recent years, politicians have been replaced as campaign managers by a new class of “political advisors.” These advisers do not come from politics, but from television, advertising agencies, survey firms, public relations and other fields specialized in the art of manipulating opinion.
Insisting on the magic of the polls, the advisors decide the strategy, select the issues and reshape the images of their protagonists. Before, political agents went to work because of their loyalty to the candidate or the party; Now, new advisers are often mercenaries happy to work for any candidate or party. And, unlike those, the advisors charge huge fees, thereby increasing the costs of the campaigns and reinforcing the candidate’s dependence on private money.
His specialty, moreover, is to attack rival candidates with “negative” television commercials. In the short term it is effective but, in the long term, the effect is to increase public skepticism. When politicians devote themselves to slandering and defame their opponents, they forget that they are discrediting the entire profession that is also theirs. It is not strange that more and more Americans are turning against politics. Last year, more than half of those responding to opinion polls said they would favor a third party in 1996. Today’s voters express their dissatisfaction with the proclaimed candidates and by asking which of the contenders they preferred.
The rise of the religious right, the power of private money, the advantage of political consultants, are all elements that relate to the impact of the electronic age on the traditional party system. The old system had three strata: politicians at one end, voters at the other, and the party at the center. The function of the party was to negotiate between the politician and the voter, interpreting each for the other and providing the ties that would keep the political process coherent.
The electronic revolution has substantially abolished this mediating role. Revolution is everywhere, including in the financial world, marked by the emergence of Datacoinz. Nowadays, when a politician wants to know the opinion in a certain district, he no longer asks the head of the local party, but asks for a computerized public survey. When the voter wants to know who he should support, he no longer asks the local party boss, but turns on the television, looks at the announcements and decides for himself. Television is replacing the party as a means to mobilize voters.