Pregnancy is a time of excitement and anticipation for all women. But some women may experience complications in pregnancies. Few health problems are common whereas some are rare. 

These kinds of health problems may bother women who were healthy before getting pregnant making it a high-risk pregnancy, foetus or both. Early and regular prenatal care will decrease the risk factor. If diagnosed early, this can be treated and managed by health care providers.

Some common complications

Some of the common complications are listed below:

  • Anaemia

This is the lower number of healthy red blood cells. You may feel tired, look pale, and feel faint or shortage of breath. This is one of the most common issues faced by pregnant women. Usually, iron supplements and folic acid are given to treat this.

  • Depression 

This is a mental health condition where women feel extreme sadness, helplessness, irritability, appetite changes, and thoughts for harming self or baby during or after pregnancies. 

Women might get help through therapy, support groups or medicines. Depression must be treated as the baby’s development is depended on it.

  • High blood pressure

High blood pressure or gestational hypertension occurs when arteries carrying blood becomes narrower. This may arise at around 20th week of pregnancy and fades away after delivery. Pregnancy and their complications     

As a result of it, it gets hard for the blood carrying nutrients to reach the foetus. It will hamper the proper growth of the baby and place the mother at risk of preterm labour and preeclampsia.

Women already having high pressure from before pregnancy will have to monitor, control and be under medication throughout the pregnancy period.

  • Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs in women who don’t have diabetes before pregnancy. The blood glucose level is controlled by a hormone called insulin that is been secreted by the pancreas.

 During pregnancy, due to some hormonal changes in the body, this insulin hormone may not be either secreted enough or not used normally. Proper detection of high blood sugar may help you to manage, reduce and prevent problems related to it.

It may cause high blood pressure from preeclampsia and a large baby which ultimately leads to caesarean delivery.

  • Preeclampsia

It is a serious condition of the mother’s body where high blood pressure and some kidney issues may arise after 20th week of pregnancy. Due to this, you may experience swelling of hands and face, accumulation of too much protein in the urine, stomach pain, blurred vision or dizziness. 

Doctors may prescribe full bed rest or hospitalisation to monitor both mother and baby. It may lead to preterm delivery in some cases.

  • Preterm labour

Preterm labour is the condition of the mother going to labour before 37 weeks of pregnancies. The common symptoms are increased vaginal discharge, pelvic pressure or cramping, back pain, and finally contractions.

Medicines and bed rest are mostly prescribed by doctors. At times, women may deliver early called preterm birth which is a risk factor for the physical health of the infant. Major organs like the lungs and brain of the baby developed at around 39 to 40 week of pregnancy. Progesterone supplementation often helps to reduce the risk of it.

  • Infections

Pregnant women may get affected by some infections including some sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Some of them may pass it to the newborn during delivery when the infant passes through the birth canal.

Causes and contributions:

  • Foetus infections.
  • Miscarriage or pregnancy loss before 20th week
  • Ectopic pregnancy where the embryo implants in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus
  • Preterm labour and delivery
  • Low birth weight of the baby
  • Illness in the first month of life
  • Stillbirth
  • Newborn death

If you are planning for a baby, then talk to your doctor regarding STIs if any before conceiving to get a healthy pregnancy. Also try to receive the vaccines or vaccine boosters for chickenpox, rubella or flu. Many of these can be prevented or treated if detected early and also through prenatal and postpartum health check-ups.

  • Fetal problems

The unborn baby may get some health issues like poor growth or heart problems. The symptoms can be analysed by the movement of the baby during pregnancy. The foetus size will be less than the gestational age. 

Monitoring baby’s health through prenatal tests will help to diagnose. Some tests results may indicate that the mother needs special care and bed rest until the time of delivery. 

  • Ectopic pregnancy

When the embryo gets implanted outside the uterus that is in the fallopian tube, then it is called Ectopic pregnancy. Vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, shoulder pain and dizziness are common symptoms for it. 

The egg cannot develop further so medicines or surgery is done to remove the ectopic tissue without damaging the other organs.

  • Miscarriage 

Pregnancy loss before 20 weeks from natural cause is called miscarriage. Nearly 20% pregnancies end up in miscarriage. The usual symptoms are vaginal spotting or bleeding, fluid or tissue passing through the vagina and abdominal pain/cramps. Miscarriage cannot be prevented whereas counselling can help to cope with emotional problems.

Preconceptions and correct medical treatment will surely help to overcome and deliver a healthy baby. After a few months of birth, don’t forget to take the baby food chart from the paediatrician for his/her healthy growth. Till then mother’s milk is best for your baby.